General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0221 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl.
    • Frequency: Quarterly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJCEA
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Shen-Ming Chen
    • Executive Editor: Jennifer X. Zeng
    • Abstracting/ Indexing:  CNKI, Google Scholar, EBSCO, ProQuest,  Crossref, etc.
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Prof. Dr. Shen-Ming Chen
National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan

IJCEA 2015 Vol.6(6): 436-439 ISSN: 2010-0221
DOI: 10.7763/IJCEA.2015.V6.525

Production of Biodiesel from Waste Canola Cooking Oil in Pakistan

Zaibunnisa Hussain, Saeed Ahmad Nagra, and Mehwish Jamil
Abstract—Biodiesel can be manufactured from specifically grown crops that would otherwise serve no purpose. However, some types of biodiesel raise certain ethical issues because they are made from crops which are used as a food source. Alternatively, biodiesel can be prepared from waste oil which has already been used in the manufacture of a product, normally food, such as crisps or from restaurants that use oil in fryers. Edible vegetable oils such as canola, soybean and corn have been used for biodiesel production and found to be a good diesel substitute but commercialization of biodiesel production from edible vegetable oil is expensive due to the high cost of oil. A promising alternative to edible vegetable oil is waste (canola) cooking oil. Biodiesel production by a transesterification reaction can be catalysed with alkali, acid or enzyme, but the latter is more time consuming and costly. The present study investigated biodiesel production from waste (canola) cooking oil in a two-step acid base catalysed process using ferric sulphate in step 1 and potassium hydroxide in step 2. Methanol was used as solvent for the catalysed process. Characterization of waste (canola) cooking oil was expressed in terms of acid value and saponification value. Conversion experiments were performed at different operating conditions including four methanol to oil ratios ranging from 3:1 to 6:1, four different catalyst amounts of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 (wt. %) at reaction time of one hour and temperature of 100°C. Analysis of the product was performed using titration method, infra-red spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID). Results indicated that increase in methanol to oil ratio and wt. % of catalyst increased the yield of biodiesel produced.

Index Terms—Biodiesel, edible oil, canola, transesterification, GC/FID.

Zaibunnisa Hussain and Mehwish Jamil are with the Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan 54590 (email:,
Saeed Ahmad Nagra is with the Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan 54000 (email:


Cite: Zaibunnisa Hussain, Saeed Ahmad Nagra, and Mehwish Jamil, "Production of Biodiesel from Waste Canola Cooking Oil in Pakistan," International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 436-439, 2015.

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