General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0221 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl.
    • Frequency: Bimonthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJCEA
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Shen-Ming Chen
    • Executive Editor: Jennifer X. Zeng
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, CABI, Electronic Journals Library, Google Scholar, ProQuest,  Crossref, EBSCO.
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Prof. Dr. Shen-Ming Chen
National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan

IJCEA 2017 Vol.8(3): 153-161 ISSN: 2010-0221
doi: 10.18178/ijcea.2017.8.3.648

Development of Bio-Jet Fuel Production Using Palm Kernel Oil and Ethanol

Nhan Thi Thuc Truong and Apichat Boontawan
Abstract—In this work, the trans-esterification between palm kernel oil (PKO) and ethanol was investigated in order to produce a petroleum-free fuel for jet-engine. The combined effect of temperature, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and molar ratio of reactants to fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) production were optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum condition to produce 97.6% of ethyl esters was obtained at 48 oC, 120 min reaction time, molar ratio 9:1 and catalyst concentration 1 wt%. The FAEE mixture was then fractionated to obtain only medium chain FAEE which possessed the bio-jet fuel characteristics. The properties of the bio-jet met the standard ASTM and EN biofuels in term of ethyl esters content. Finally, the fuel combustion was tested by using a small scale jet engine with lower emission of CO, NO2, HC compared to conventional kerosene.

Index Terms—Bio-jet fuel, palm kernel oil, fatty acid ethyl ester, gas turbine engine.

The authors are with Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand (e-mail:,


Cite: Nhan Thi Thuc Truong and Apichat Boontawan, "Development of Bio-Jet Fuel Production Using Palm Kernel Oil and Ethanol," International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 153-161, 2017.

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