General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0221 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl.
    • Frequency: Quarterly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJCEA
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Shen-Ming Chen
    • Executive Editor: Jennifer X. Zeng
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, CABI, Electronic Journals Library, Google Scholar, ProQuest,  Crossref, EBSCO, CNKI.
    • Email: ijcea@ejournal.net
  • Sep 07, 2021 News! Vol.12, No.3 has been published with online version.   [Click]
  • Jun 18, 2021 News! Vol.12, No.2 has been published with online version.   [Click]
Editor-in-chief
Prof. Dr. Shen-Ming Chen
National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan
 

IJCEA 2021 Vol.12(1): 1-6 ISSN: 2010-0221
doi: 10.18178/ijcea.2021.12.1.787

Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Car Dust from Thailand and Implications for Human Exposure

Premrudee Kanchanapiya, Benjawan Nilyok, Supachai Songngam, and Sun Olapiriyakul
Abstract—Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) are a group of compounds frequently detected in indoor dust that pose high health risks to exposure subjects. The present study reports on the investigation of the levels and profiles of seven target PFRs in car dust samples from Thailand. The samples were collected from the discarded air conditioning (AC) filter of 14 private cars (called AC dust samples) and from the bag filter installed in vacuum cleaners of 10 car washing services (called settled dust samples) in 2019. The concentrations of 7PFRs in AC dust samples were approximately 3,800-91,000 ng/g, whereas those from settled dust samples were about 11,000 to 15,000 ng/g. Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) was found to be the most prominent of PFRs detected in both types of car dust with the highest concentration of 39,000 ng/g for AC filter dust and 10,000 ng/g for settled dust. The main PFR contributors in both dust types were TBEP (80%, 75%), followed by Tris (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) (9%, 5%) and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP) (7%, 4%), respectively. Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) and tri cresyl phosphate (TCP) were not detected in both types of car dust and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) was found only in settled dust samples. According to the results of exposure assessment to PFRs in car dust, the human exposures via ingestion for adults and toddlers ranged from 1.69×10-2 to 2.67 and 10.6 to 2,360 ng/kg/day. The human exposures via inhalation for adults and toddlers ranged from 3.27×10-4 to 5.17x10-2 and 2.58×10-1 to 40.9 ng/kg/day. The highest exposure among PFRs corresponded to TBEP for both adults and toddlers and the risk through ingestion was higher than inhalation intake. Toddlers were more exposed to PFR contaminants in comparison to adults. When comparing the estimated average daily intake (ADI) values with the reference doses (RfDs) for PFRs, it was found that exposure to PFRs in car cabins via inhalation and dust ingestion is unlikely to have adverse human health effects.

Index Terms—Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), indoor dust, car dust, human exposure.

K. Premrudee is with the National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thialand (e-mail: premrudk@mtec.or.th).
N. Benjawan and O.Sun are with Sirindhon International Institute of Technology, Thaialand (e-mail: benjawan.nilyok@gmail.com, and suno@siit.tu.ac.th).
S. Supachai is with the National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Thialand (e-mail: supachais@mtec.or.th).

[PDF]

Cite: Premrudee Kanchanapiya, Benjawan Nilyok, Supachai Songngam, and Sun Olapiriyakul, "Organophosphate Flame Retardants in Car Dust from Thailand and Implications for Human Exposure," International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-6, 2021.

Copyright © 2008-2021. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications. All rights reserved
E-mail: ijcea@ejournal.net