General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0221
    • Frequency: Bimonthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJCEA
    • Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Eldin W. C. Lim
    • Executive Editor: Mr. Ron C. Wu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, CABI, DOAJ, Electronic Journals Library, Google Scholar, Engineering & Technology Digital Library, ProQuest, and Crossref
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Dr. Eldin W. C. Lim
Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering,
National University of Singapore, Singapore
IJCEA 2014 Vol.5(1): 36-40 ISSN: 2010-0221
DOI: 10.7763/IJCEA.2014.V5.347

Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from Water Hyacinth Using Ethanol-Isobutyl Alcohol Mixture as the Solvents

Asep Handaya Saputra, Linnisa Qadhayna, and Alia Badra Pitaloka
Abstract—Water hyacinth, a free-floating aquatic weed originating from South America has become a major floating weed of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant has the tendency to regenerate from seeds and fragment allowing rapid increase in plant population. Water hyacinth is however a fiber that is rich in its cellulosic compounds, which can be derivated into somewhat multifunctional properties. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) is a derivated cellulose that is used in food products as a thickener agent or non-food products such as detergents, paints, and others. The research has investigated further on how one would synthesize CMC from water hyacinth as well examining the characterization of the CMC samples that is originated from the plant. The production of CMC involves four main processes: the isolation of alpha-cellulose from the water hyacinth and the synthesis by the alkali-catalyzed reaction (alkalization) of cellulose with chloroacetic acid (carboxymethylation) and finally the purification of the CMC itself to remove undesirable compounds. In this research, the variations are comprised of the NaOH added (5 M - 35 M) during alkalization and the ratio of the solvent between isobutanol and ethanol (ratio 80:20, 50:50 and 20:80) thus fifteen samples are obtained. The characterization is based on two testing methods: FTIR and Degree of Substitution (DS). During FTIR test, it is proven that CMC is produced in the experiment. This is verified from the spectrum transmitting 1400 cm-1 1600 cm-1 indicating ether and carboxyl functional group consecutively. On the other hand, the highest DS is obtained in sample CMC-28-10 with a value of 1.76 with the highest purity of 93.24.

Index Terms—Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), water hyacinth, ethanol, isobutyl alcohol

The authors are with the Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia (e-mail:,, ).


Cite: Asep Handaya Saputra, Linnisa Qadhayna, and Alia Badra Pitaloka, "Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from Water Hyacinth Using Ethanol-Isobutyl Alcohol Mixture as the Solvents," International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 36-40, 2014.

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