General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0221 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl.
    • Frequency: Quarterly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJCEA
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Shen-Ming Chen
    • Executive Editor: Jennifer X. Zeng
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, CABI, Electronic Journals Library, Google Scholar, ProQuest,  Crossref, EBSCO, CNKI.
    • Email:
  • Apr 25, 2022 News! Vol.13, No.2 has been published with online version.   [Click]
  • Jan 26, 2022 News! Vol.13, No.1 has been published with online version.   [Click]
Prof. Dr. Shen-Ming Chen
National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan

IJCEA 2014 Vol.5(6): 451-456 ISSN: 2010-0221
DOI: 10.7763/IJCEA.2014.V5.427

Technical Evaluation of C3-MR and Cascade Cycle on Natural Gas Liquefaction Process

Clementino Pereira and Domingos Lequisiga
Abstract—Several types of liquefaction technologies have been extensively utilized to convert raw natural gas into a liquid state known as- Liquefied Natural Gas or LNG. Selecting a specific liquefaction technology – e.g. APCI C3-MR, Conoco Philips Basic Cascade Process, Shell DMR, or Linde Mixed Fluid Cascade Process- varies from one LNG plant to the next. This paper presents the simulation of C3-MR and Cascade pure refrigerant process – likely technology for Timor LNG – by using Aspen Hysys V7.3 on the basis of Peng-Robinson equation of state. Both processes were simulated based on data of natural gas temperature, pressure, composition and flow rate. These data were obtained from an LNG Plant – “Timor LNG” that is planned to be built in Timor-Leste. During the simulations the effects were analyzed by examining specific horse power, LNG production and revenue of LNG derived from both processes. The analysis of specific horse power on the liquefaction process for C3-MR and pure refrigerant shows that using pure refrigerant has lower specific horse power than C3-MR by 69%. However, LNG production capacity of simulated processes shows that C3-MR has higher production capacity per train of (2.86 MTPA/Train) than pure refrigerant cascade which is (2.64 MTPA/Train). Also the revenue of LNG for C3-MR process exceeded that of pure refrigerant cascade by 94%. In order to better understand the liquefaction process, this paper also discussed the thermodynamic analysis of liquefaction plant.

Index Terms—Liquefaction, C3-MR, cascade, LNG production, LNG specific power.

Clementino Pereira is with the Graduate internship program at Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Dili, Timor-Leste (tel.: +67076166231; e-mail:
Domingos Lequisiga is with Gas Business Unit of TIMOR GAP, E.P., the National Oil Company (NOC) of Timor-Leste, Timor Plaza – Level 3, Rua Presidente Nicolao Lobato, Comoro, Dili, Timor-Leste (tel.: +6703310953; e-mail:


Cite: Clementino Pereira and Domingos Lequisiga, "Technical Evaluation of C3-MR and Cascade Cycle on Natural Gas Liquefaction Process," International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 451-456, 2014.

Copyright © 2008-2022. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications. All rights reserved