General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0221
    • Frequency: Bimonthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJCEA
    • Editor-in-Chief: Dr. Eldin W. C. Lim
    • Executive Editor: Mr. Ron C. Wu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, CABI, DOAJ, Electronic Journals Library, Google Scholar, Engineering & Technology Digital Library, ProQuest, and Crossref
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Dr. Eldin W. C. Lim
Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering,
National University of Singapore, Singapore
IJCEA 2017 Vol.8(4): 272-276 ISSN: 2010-0221
doi: 10.18178/ijcea.2017.8.4.669

Preparation of Carbonaceous Heavy Metal Adsorbent from Cedar Bark Using Sulfur-Impregnation

Takaaki Wajima
Abstract—A novel carbonaceous adsorbent with heavy metal removal from aqueous solution was prepared from cedar bark using sulfur impregnation. The bark was cut to 1 cm pieces, and then immersed in 0.01 - 3 M K2S solution to prepare sulfur-immersed materials. The immersed-materials were heated at 100-700 oC in nitrogen gas to produce the sulfur-impregnated carbonaceous adsorbent by pyrolysis. The contents of carbon and sulfur in the adsorbent and abilities of adsorbent to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution were examined. The sulfur content in sulfur-immersed materials is higher than that in raw material by sulfur-immersion, while the carbon content in sulfur-immersed materials is almost the same as that in raw material. After pyrolysis, the product prepared from cedar bark immersed in 1 M K2S solution at 400 oC indicates a maximum recovery for nickel ion, regardless of sulfur content. This product has the removal ability of the heavy metals, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Fe3+ and Fe2+. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the adsorbent for heavy metal ions fits the Langmuir isotherm better than the Freundlich isotherm, and the calculated maximum adsorption capacity is 0.30 - 0.74 mmol/g. The order of selectivity of the adsorbent indicates Pb2+ > Fe2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+> Cd2+ > Ni2+ > Fe3+. For adsorption of iron ion with the adsorbent, the adsorption for divalent Fe2+ is superior to that for trivalent Fe3+, while influence of co-existing anion species for the adsorption with sulfur-impregnated adsorbent is little.

Index Terms—Cedar bark, sulfur-impregnated adsorbent, pyrolysis, heavy metal removal, wastewater treatment.

Takaaki Wajima is with the Department of Urban Environment Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Japan (e-mail:


Cite: Takaaki Wajima, "Preparation of Carbonaceous Heavy Metal Adsorbent from Cedar Bark Using Sulfur-Impregnation," International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 272-276, 2017.

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